pidin

Display system statistics (QNX Neutrino)

Syntax:

pidin [options] shorthand

Options:

The options are:

-d delay
Delay, in tenths of a second. The default is 10.
-F formats
A combination of format letters, like the format string for printf() . Like printf(), you can specify the width for a field by including a number with the format, such as "%I %60N".
Format Description
A Arguments
a Process ID
B What you're blocked on; see Values in the Blocked column, below.
b Thread ID
c Code size of the process
d Data size of the process
E Environment
e Parent PID
f Process flags (see the flags shorthand below)
H Scheduling-specific information for each thread.
h Thread name; if a thread doesn't have a name, pidin displays the thread's ID (tid) instead.
I PID and TID
i Runmask and inherit mask.
J State of the thread; see Thread life cycle in the QNX Neutrino Microkernel chapter of the System Architecture guide
K What kernel call was executed last
l (el) The last CPU the thread ran on
M Memory owned by the PID
m Stack size of the process
N Short name of the process
n Long name of the process
o Connection IDs and file descriptors associated with the process (see the fds shorthand below)
P (Uppercase P) parent group
p (Lowercase p) thread priority
Q Interrupt handlers
q Backtrace of calling routines. For best results, use this format with the I format.
R Timers
S Signal ignore mask
s Signal queued mask
T Number of threads
[ Lengths of the send, receive, reply and pulse queues.

If you don't specify a format, the default is "%a %b %N %p %J %B".

The letter following the scheduling priority number stands for the scheduling policy used, as follows:

  • f — FIFO scheduling
  • r — round-robin scheduling
  • o — other (currently, same as round-robin scheduling)
  • s — sporadic scheduling

For more information on these scheduling policies, see Thread scheduling in the System Architecture guide.

-f formats
The same as the -F option, but the formats parameter is a contiguous string of format codes that gets expanded. For example, -f mbe is expanded to -F "%m %b %e".
-h
Display a brief usage message.
-k
Keep printing out data for PIDs and TIDs until an error occurs, for example, encountering a PID/TID in an unknown state (because the PID/TID is partially alive).
-l
Loop mode; display statistics every delay tenths of a second (specified with the -d option).
-M formats
A combination of format letters, like the format string for printf() , that controls the formatting of information about memory regions. The formats include:
Format Description
< Memory object code size
= Memory object data size
> Memory object address
? Memory object offset
M Memory owned by the PID
: (colon) Memory object name
; (semicolon) Offset

If you don't specify a format, the default is the empty string, "".

-n node
The name of the remote node from which to get the information.
-o prio
Run at prio priority.
-P pid
Show only the process family you're interested in (pid may be a name or number).
-p pid
Show only the process you're interested in (pid may be a name or number).

If the pid is a number, it's interpreted as a process ID; otherwise, it's interpreted as a name.

Don't assign a numerical name to a process.

The shorthand name is one of the following. You need to type only as many characters of the name as are required to uniquely identify it.

arguments
Show the arguments of the displayed processes.
backtrace
Display backtrace information for each thread in the displayed processes. For example:
$ pidin -p devc-con-hid back
pid-tid     backtrace
    4103-01 b033ab5b:b03323cb:b03324f3:804f6ed:804c120:804a285
    4103-02 b033af63:805ca60:b031f0ad
  

The output includes the process ID hyphenated to the thread ID, followed by a backtrace of the addresses of the calling routines.

channels
Display the lengths of the send, receive, reply and pulse queues. This shorthand is useful if you're trying to track pulse leaks — that is, a process not receiving pulses. This can cause a growth in kernel memory usage, since pulse structures are allocated in the kernel.
environment
Show the environment of the displayed processes.
extsched
Display details of the active extended scheduler configuration.
family
Show the sessions, process groups, parents, siblings, and children of the displayed processes.
fds
Show information about the process's connections and file descriptors. If you don't have permission to access them, pidin provides only limited information.

The information for each connection and file descriptor includes the following:

  • the file descriptor, followed by s if it's a side channel
  • the ID of the process the connection is to
  • open flags (r or -, followed by w or -), or MP for a mountpoint
  • the offset
  • the name of the file or device, if available.
flags
Show the processes' flags in hexadecimal, as follows:
Flag Value
_NTO_PF_NOCLDSTOP 0x00000001
_NTO_PF_LOADING 0x00000002
_NTO_PF_TERMING 0x00000004
_NTO_PF_ZOMBIE 0x00000008
_NTO_PF_NOZOMBIE 0x00000010
_NTO_PF_FORKED 0x00000020
_NTO_PF_ORPHAN_PGRP 0x00000040
_NTO_PF_STOPPED 0x00000080
_NTO_PF_DEBUG_STOPPED 0x00000100
_NTO_PF_BKGND_PGRP 0x00000200
_NTO_PF_NO_LIMITS 0x00000400
_NTO_PF_CONTINUED 0x00000800
_NTO_PF_CHECK_INTR 0x00001000
_NTO_PF_COREDUMP 0x00002000
_NTO_PF_PTRACED 0x00004000
_NTO_PF_RING0 0x00008000
_NTO_PF_SLEADER 0x00010000
_NTO_PF_WAITINFO 0x00020000
_NTO_PF_VFORKED 0x00040000
_NTO_PF_DESTROYALL 0x00080000
_NTO_PF_NOCOREDUMP 0x00100000
_NTO_PF_NOCTTY 0x00200000
_NTO_PF_THREADWATCH 0x80000000
info
Display information about the system, such as the type of processor(s) and the amount of free memory.
irqs
Show the IRQ handlers owned by the process. For each handler, pidin shows:
  • id — the interrupt ID returned by InterruptAttach() or InterruptAttachEvent()
  • vector — the interrupt vector passed to InterruptAttach() or InterruptAttachEvent()
  • mask_count — the mask level count
  • flags — the interrupt flags. Valid flags include:
    • T_NTO_INTR_FLAGS_TRK_MSK
    • P_NTO_INTR_FLAGS_PROCESS
    • E_NTO_INTR_FLAGS_END
  • handler:area — the address of the interrupt handler and the interrupt handler area
  • event — a description of the sigevent to be delivered. Valid descriptions include:
    • SIGNAL— signo
    • SIGNAL_CODE—signo code:value
    • SIGNAL_THREAD—signo code:value
    • PULSE—coid:priority code:value
    • UNBLOCK
    • INTR
    • THREAD—code:value
mapinfo
Show information about memory mappings. The output looks like this:
4101   8 proc/boot/io-usb    10o RECEIVE           80K  424K   4096(20K)
         libc.so.3          @b0300000             452K   16K
         devu-uhci.so       @b8200000              24K  4096
         devu-ohci.so       @b8207000              24K  4096
         devu-ehci.so       @b820e000              28K  4096
         Mapped Phys Memory @40100000 (ee000000)         12K  S
  

It includes:

  • the memory object's name, or Mapped Phys Memory for mapped physical memory
  • the memory object's address, followed by the offset if applicable
  • the object's code and data sizes
  • the memory object's flags, which can include:
    • ANONMAP_PRIVATE, MAP_ANON
    • EMAP_ELF
    • FMAP_FIXED
    • PMAP_PRIVATE
    • SMAP_SHARED

    For more information about these flags, see mmap() in the QNX Neutrino C Library Reference.

memory
Show the memory used by the displayed processes; pidin displays the shared memory regions, including shared objects, and stack usage for each thread. Shared code and data regions are removed from the size of the process.

The stack numbers represent the amount of stack currently mapped and, in brackets, the maximum allowed for that process.

A * next to a stack size indicates that memory used in the stack isn't automatically returned to the system heap when the thread exits. The memory is returned when the process exits.

Entries for /dev/mem indicate shared memory that's mapped into the process address space. For example:

/dev/mem           @38100000 (       0)        172K
  

If the entries for different processes show the same object (@38100000 in this example), they all reference the same shared memory object. The processes can map that shared memory differently; the number in parentheses is the offset that was used in the mmap() call, and the last number is the size of the mapping.

net
Display system information about all the nodes on the Qnet network.
pmem
Display process memory only.
rc
Show the process name and arguments of all remote nodes connected to your machine.
regs
Show the values of the registers.
rmasks
Display runmasks and inherit masks.
sched
Display useful scheduling parameters for each thread. This shorthand is a synonym for -f abNplHJ.
session
Sort by session ID, then process ID. By default, pidin sorts the output by process ID.
signals
Show the signal state of the displayed processes.
syspage
Show the syspage entry. You can specify which section to print by indicating a name (e.g. the command pidin syspage=asinfo displays the asinfo section). The default is all.
threads
Show the thread name; if a thread doesn't have a name, pidin displays the thread's ID (tid) instead.
timers
Show the timers owned by the process. For each timer it shows:
  • id — the timer ID returned by TimerCreate() .
  • tid — the thread ID associated with this timer (0 for the entire process).
  • overruns — the number of overruns.
  • clock_type — the type of clock used. Valid descriptions include:
    • REALCLOCK_REALTIME
    • SOFTCLOCK_SOFTTIME
    • MONOCLOCK_MONOTONIC
  • flags — the timer flag. Valid flags include:
    • X_NTO_TI_EXPIRED
    • A_NTO_TI_ABSOLUTE
    • a_NTO_TI_ACTIVE
  • msec — the time left before expiry, in milliseconds.
  • interval_msec — the timer interval, in milliseconds.
  • event — the description of the sigevent to be delivered on timer expiry. Valid event descriptions are listed for the irq shorthand.
times
For each process displayed, show:
  • start time — the time and date that the process was started
  • utime — the number of CPU seconds consumed by the process
  • stime — the number of CPU seconds consumed by the kernel on behalf of the process
  • cutime — the number of CPU seconds consumed by the children of the process
  • cstime — the number of CPU seconds consumed by the kernel on behalf of the children of the process

The times for the child processes are added to cutime and cstime only after the children terminate.

CPU usage is calculated by sampling. When the timer interrupt occurs, the kernel determines which process is running, and adds the time to the total running times of the active thread and its process. If the kernel itself is active, it also adds the time to the system times (stime) of the active thread and its process. The utime is the total running time minus the system time.

As a result, these times are approximate, and can be inaccurate (e.g. if a process is driven by the timer interrupt). To determine more accurate times, use the system profiler.

ttimes
Show thread times.
users
Display the real, effective, and saved user IDs and group IDs for the user who launched the processes. This option doesn't display the user name or group name, just the numerical IDs.

Description:

The pidin utility displays statistics about the processes running on a QNX Neutrino system.

By default, pidin displays the statistics once and then exits. If you specify the -l, pidin loops forever, displaying statistics after the delay specified by the -d option.

If you specify the -l and -k options, pidin loops until a error occurs, displaying statistics after the given delay. The most common error encountered is a race condition: procnto indicates that a process exists, but the process is gone when pidin queries it.

If you want to find out how much space the image file system (IFS) occupies in the memory, run the following command:

pidin syspage=asinfo

and look for the lines with imagefs. See the output in the display as shown in the example below.

Values in the Blocked column

If you specify the %B format, the output includes a Blocked column whose value depends on the thread's state:

State Value
CONDVAR Address of the condvar
JOIN Thread ID of the blocking thread
MUTEX The address of the mutex, or the IDs of the process and thread blocked on, followed by the number of times locked, in the form pid - tid  # times
RECEIVE ID of the channel within the process that the thread is blocked on
REPLY Process IDa
SEM Address of the semaphore
SEND Process IDa
STACK Stack size
WAITPAGE Virtual address of the page
WAITTHREAD Thread ID of the blocking thread

a If the process is running on a remote node, the process ID is followed by @ and the node name.

Examples:

The pidin command prints a listing similar to this:

     pid tid name               prio STATE       Blocked
       1   1 /sys/procnto-instr   0f READY
       1   3 /sys/procnto-instr  10r RUNNING
       1   4 /sys/procnto-instr  12r RECEIVE     1
       1   5 /sys/procnto-instr  12r RECEIVE     1
       1   6 /sys/procnto-instr  12r RECEIVE     1
       1  11 /sys/procnto-instr  12r RECEIVE     1
       1  12 /sys/procnto-instr  10r RECEIVE     1
       1  13 /sys/procnto-instr  10r RECEIVE     1
       1  15 /sys/procnto-instr 255r RECEIVE     1
       1  16 /sys/procnto-instr  10r RECEIVE     1
       1  17 /sys/procnto-instr  10r RECEIVE     1
       2   1 sbin/tinit          10o REPLY       1
       3   1 proc/boot/slogger   10o RECEIVE     1
       5   1 proc/boot/pci-bios  10o RECEIVE     1
       6   1 roc/boot/devb-eide  10o SIGWAITINFO
       6   2 roc/boot/devb-eide  21r RECEIVE     1
       …

Using pidin -F "%I %60N" displays the PID and TID, along with up to 60 characters of the processes' short name:

pid-tid     name
       1-01 rldbuild/cdr/qnx6/tmp/target/qnx6/x86/boot/sys/procnto-instr
       1-03 rldbuild/cdr/qnx6/tmp/target/qnx6/x86/boot/sys/procnto-instr
       1-04 rldbuild/cdr/qnx6/tmp/target/qnx6/x86/boot/sys/procnto-instr
       1-05 rldbuild/cdr/qnx6/tmp/target/qnx6/x86/boot/sys/procnto-instr
       1-06 rldbuild/cdr/qnx6/tmp/target/qnx6/x86/boot/sys/procnto-instr
       1-11 rldbuild/cdr/qnx6/tmp/target/qnx6/x86/boot/sys/procnto-instr
       1-12 rldbuild/cdr/qnx6/tmp/target/qnx6/x86/boot/sys/procnto-instr
       1-13 rldbuild/cdr/qnx6/tmp/target/qnx6/x86/boot/sys/procnto-instr
       1-15 rldbuild/cdr/qnx6/tmp/target/qnx6/x86/boot/sys/procnto-instr
       1-16 rldbuild/cdr/qnx6/tmp/target/qnx6/x86/boot/sys/procnto-instr
       1-17 rldbuild/cdr/qnx6/tmp/target/qnx6/x86/boot/sys/procnto-instr
       2-01 sbin/tinit
       3-01 proc/boot/slogger
       5-01 proc/boot/pci-bios
       6-01 proc/boot/devb-eide
       …

The pidin mem command displays:

     pid tid name               prio STATE           code  data         stack
       1   1 /sys/procnto-instr   0f READY           1812K   12K      0(320)*
       1   3 /sys/procnto-instr  10r RUNNING         1812K   12K     0(8192)
       1   4 /sys/procnto-instr  12r RECEIVE         1812K   12K     0(8192)
       1   5 /sys/procnto-instr  12r RECEIVE         1812K   12K     0(8192)
       1   6 /sys/procnto-instr  12r RECEIVE         1812K   12K     0(8192)
       1  11 /sys/procnto-instr  12r RECEIVE         1812K   12K     0(8192)
       1  12 /sys/procnto-instr  10r RECEIVE         1812K   12K     0(8192)
       1  13 /sys/procnto-instr  10r RECEIVE         1812K   12K     0(8192)
       1  15 /sys/procnto-instr 255r RECEIVE         1812K   12K     0(8192)
       1  16 /sys/procnto-instr  10r RECEIVE         1812K   12K     0(8192)
       1  17 /sys/procnto-instr  10r RECEIVE         1812K   12K     0(8192)
            procnto-instr      @cfbe5000              12K   12K
       2   1 sbin/tinit          10o REPLY            8192   36K  4096(516K)*
            ldqnx.so.2         @b0300000             344K   16K
       3   1 proc/boot/slogger   10o RECEIVE          8192  104K  4096(516K)*
            ldqnx.so.2         @b0300000             344K   16K
       5   1 proc/boot/pci-bios  10o RECEIVE           36K   40K  8192(516K)*
            ldqnx.so.2         @b0300000             344K   16K
       6   1 roc/boot/devb-eide  10o SIGWAITINFO       52K   91M  8192(516K)*
       6   2 roc/boot/devb-eide  21r RECEIVE           52K   91M   4096(12K)
       …

The pidin syspage=asinfo command displays:

Section:asinfo offset:0x00000568 size:0x00000240
    0)                0-ffff             o:ffff a:0000 p:100 n:io
   20)                0-ffffffff         o:ffff a:0010 p:100 n:memory
   40)                0-ffffff           o:0020 a:0010 p:100 n:memory/isa
   a0)                0-9fbff            o:0040 a:0017 p:100 n:memory/isa/ram
  180)             1000-cfff             o:00a0 a:0007 p:100 n:memory/isa/ram/sysram
  1a0)            20f98-9fbff            o:00a0 a:0007 p:100 n:memory/isa/ram/sysram
   c0)           100000-ffffff           o:0040 a:0037 p:100 n:memory/isa/ram
  1c0)           100000-40e507           o:00c0 a:0007 p:100 n:memory/isa/ram/sysram
  1e0)           5e533c-ffffff           o:00c0 a:0027 p:100 n:memory/isa/ram/sysram
   60)          6000000-ffefffff         o:0020 a:0013 p:100 n:memory/device
  100)          6000000-ffeafff          o:0060 a:0017 p:100 n:memory/device/ram
  220)          6000000-ffeafff          o:0100 a:0007 p:100 n:memory/device/ram/sysram
   80)         fff00000-ffffffff         o:0020 a:0005 p:100 n:memory/rom
   e0)          1000000-5ffffff          o:0020 a:0037 p:100 n:memory/ram
  200)          1000000-5ffffff          o:00e0 a:0027 p:100 n:memory/ram/sysram
  120)           40e508-5e533b           o:0020 a:0005 p:100 n:memory/imagefs
  140)           400400-40e507           o:0020 a:0007 p:100 n:memory/startup
  160)           40e508-5e533b           o:0020 a:0007 p:100 n:memory/bootram