Write arguments to standard output (POSIX)


echo [-n] [string...]


Don't write a trailing newline character.
A string to be written to standard output.


The echo command is present both as a shell builtin (see the echo command for ksh ) and as a standalone executable that can operate without the availability of the system shell. Both versions behave in a similar manner. To make sure you use the executable, specify the full path.

The echo utility writes its arguments, followed by a newline character, to standard output. If there are no arguments, only the newline character is written.

The echo utility supports the following escape sequences within string:

Escape Description
\a Write an alert character (the bell).
\b Write a backspace character.
\c Suppress the newline character that otherwise follows the final argument in the output. All characters following the \c in the arguments are ignored.
\f Write a formfeed character.
\n Write a newline character.
\r Write a carriage-return character.
\t Write a tab character.
\v Write a vertical tab character.
\\ Write a backslash character.
\0 num Write an 8-bit value that's the ASCII character represented by the specified 1-, 2-, or 3-digit octal number num.

The escape sequences listed above are extensions to POSIX.


Echo the string Hello, Mother\nHello, Father to the standard output (note that echo appends a final trailing newline):

$ echo 'Hello, Mother\nHello, Father'
Hello, Mother
Hello, Father

Exit status:

Successful completion.
An error occurred.

Last modified: 2014-05-14

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