Mutexes: mutual exclusion locks
Mutual exclusion locks, or mutexes, are the simplest of the synchronization services. A mutex is used to ensure exclusive access to data shared between threads.
Only one thread may have the mutex locked at any given time. Threads attempting to lock an already locked mutex will block until the thread that owns the mutex unlocks it. When the thread unlocks the mutex, the highest-priority thread waiting to lock the mutex will unblock and become the new owner of the mutex. In this way, threads will sequence through a critical region in priority-order.
On most processors, acquisition of a mutex doesn't require entry to the kernel for a free mutex. What allows this is the use of the compare-and-swap opcode on x86 processors and the load/store conditional opcodes on most RISC processors.
Entry to the kernel is done at acquisition time only if the mutex is already held so that the thread can go on a blocked list; kernel entry is done on exit if other threads are waiting to be unblocked on that mutex. This allows acquisition and release of an uncontested critical section or resource to be very quick, incurring work by the OS only to resolve contention.
A nonblocking lock function ( pthread_mutex_trylock() ) can be used to test whether the mutex is currently locked or not. For best performance, the execution time of the critical section should be small and of bounded duration. A condvar should be used if the thread may block within the critical section.