QSharedMemory

The QSharedMemory class provides access to a shared memory segment. More...

 #include <QSharedMemory>

Inherits: QObject.

This class was introduced in Qt 4.4.

Public Types

enum AccessMode { ReadOnly, ReadWrite }
enum SharedMemoryError { NoError, PermissionDenied, InvalidSize, KeyError, ..., UnknownError }

Public Functions

QSharedMemory ( const QString & key, QObject * parent = 0 )
QSharedMemory ( QObject * parent = 0 )
~QSharedMemory ()
bool attach ( AccessMode mode = ReadWrite )
const void * constData () const
bool create ( int size, AccessMode mode = ReadWrite )
void * data ()
const void * data () const
bool detach ()
SharedMemoryError error () const
QString errorString () const
bool isAttached () const
QString key () const
bool lock ()
QString nativeKey () const
void setKey ( const QString & key )
void setNativeKey ( const QString & key )
int size () const
bool unlock ()

Additional Inherited Members

  • 1 property inherited from QObject
  • 1 public slot inherited from QObject
  • 1 signal inherited from QObject
  • 7 static public members inherited from QObject
  • 8 protected functions inherited from QObject

Detailed Description

The QSharedMemory class provides access to a shared memory segment.

QSharedMemory provides access to a shared memory segment by multiple threads and processes. It also provides a way for a single thread or process to lock the memory for exclusive access.

When using this class, be aware of the following platform differences:

Remember to lock the shared memory with lock() before reading from or writing to the shared memory, and remember to release the lock with unlock() after you are done.

Unlike QtSharedMemory, QSharedMemory automatically destroys the shared memory segment when the last instance of QSharedMemory is detached from the segment, and no references to the segment remain. Do not mix using QtSharedMemory and QSharedMemory. Port everything to QSharedMemory.

Warning: QSharedMemory changes the key in a Qt-specific way, unless otherwise specified. Interoperation with non-Qt applications is achieved by first creating a default shared memory with QSharedMemory() and then setting a native key with setNativeKey(). When using native keys, shared memory is not protected against multiple accesses on it (e.g. unable to lock()) and a user-defined mechanism should be used to achieve a such protection.

Member Function Documentation

QSharedMemory::QSharedMemory ( const QString & key, QObject * parent = 0 )

Constructs a shared memory object with the given parent and with its key set to key. Because its key is set, its create() and attach() functions can be called.

See also setKey(), create(), and attach().

QSharedMemory::QSharedMemory ( QObject * parent = 0 )

This function overloads QSharedMemory().

Constructs a shared memory object with the given parent. The shared memory object's key is not set by the constructor, so the shared memory object does not have an underlying shared memory segment attached. The key must be set with setKey() or setNativeKey() before create() or attach() can be used.

See also setKey().

QSharedMemory::~QSharedMemory ()

The destructor clears the key, which forces the shared memory object to detach from its underlying shared memory segment. If this shared memory object is the last one connected to the shared memory segment, the detach() operation destroys the shared memory segment.

See also detach() and isAttached().

bool QSharedMemory::attach ( AccessMode mode = ReadWrite )

Attempts to attach the process to the shared memory segment identified by the key that was passed to the constructor or to a call to setKey() or setNativeKey(). The access mode is ReadWrite by default. It can also be ReadOnly. Returns true if the attach operation is successful. If false is returned, call error() to determine which error occurred. After attaching the shared memory segment, a pointer to the shared memory can be obtained by calling data().

See also isAttached(), detach(), and create().

const void * QSharedMemory::constData () const

Returns a const pointer to the contents of the shared memory segment, if one is attached. Otherwise it returns null. Remember to lock the shared memory with lock() before reading from or writing to the shared memory, and remember to release the lock with unlock() after you are done.

See also attach() and create().

bool QSharedMemory::create ( int size, AccessMode mode = ReadWrite )

Creates a shared memory segment of size bytes with the key passed to the constructor, set with setKey() or set with setNativeKey(), then attaches to the new shared memory segment with the given access mode and returns true. If a shared memory segment identified by the key already exists, the attach operation is not performed and false is returned. When the return value is false, call error() to determine which error occurred.

See also error().

void * QSharedMemory::data ()

Returns a pointer to the contents of the shared memory segment, if one is attached. Otherwise it returns null. Remember to lock the shared memory with lock() before reading from or writing to the shared memory, and remember to release the lock with unlock() after you are done.

See also attach().

const void * QSharedMemory::data () const

This function overloads data().

bool QSharedMemory::detach ()

Detaches the process from the shared memory segment. If this was the last process attached to the shared memory segment, then the shared memory segment is released by the system, i.e., the contents are destroyed. The function returns true if it detaches the shared memory segment. If it returns false, it usually means the segment either isn't attached, or it is locked by another process.

See also attach() and isAttached().

SharedMemoryError QSharedMemory::error () const

Returns a value indicating whether an error occurred, and, if so, which error it was.

See also errorString().

QString QSharedMemory::errorString () const

Returns a text description of the last error that occurred. If error() returns an error value, call this function to get a text string that describes the error.

See also error().

bool QSharedMemory::isAttached () const

Returns true if this process is attached to the shared memory segment.

See also attach() and detach().

QString QSharedMemory::key () const

Returns the key assigned with setKey() to this shared memory, or a null key if no key has been assigned, or if the segment is using a nativeKey(). The key is the identifier used by Qt applications to identify the shared memory segment.

You can find the native, platform specific, key used by the operating system by calling nativeKey().

See also setKey() and setNativeKey().

bool QSharedMemory::lock ()

This is a semaphore that locks the shared memory segment for access by this process and returns true. If another process has locked the segment, this function blocks until the lock is released. Then it acquires the lock and returns true. If this function returns false, it means that you have ignored a false return from create() or attach(), that you have set the key with setNativeKey() or that QSystemSemaphore::acquire() failed due to an unknown system error.

See also unlock(), data(), and QSystemSemaphore::acquire().

QString QSharedMemory::nativeKey () const

Returns the native, platform specific, key for this shared memory object. The native key is the identifier used by the operating system to identify the shared memory segment.

You can use the native key to access shared memory segments that have not been created by Qt, or to grant shared memory access to non-Qt applications.

This function was introduced in Qt 4.8.

See also setKey() and setNativeKey().

void QSharedMemory::setKey ( const QString & key )

Sets the platform independent key for this shared memory object. If key is the same as the current key, the function returns without doing anything.

You can call key() to retrieve the platform independent key. Internally, QSharedMemory converts this key into a platform specific key. If you instead call nativeKey(), you will get the platform specific, converted key.

If the shared memory object is attached to an underlying shared memory segment, it will detach from it before setting the new key. This function does not do an attach().

See also key(), nativeKey(), and isAttached().

void QSharedMemory::setNativeKey ( const QString & key )

Sets the native, platform specific, key for this shared memory object. If key is the same as the current native key, the function returns without doing anything. If all you want is to assign a key to a segment, you should call setKey() instead.

You can call nativeKey() to retrieve the native key. If a native key has been assigned, calling key() will return a null string.

If the shared memory object is attached to an underlying shared memory segment, it will detach from it before setting the new key. This function does not do an attach().

The application will not be portable if you set a native key.

This function was introduced in Qt 4.8.

See also nativeKey(), key(), and isAttached().

int QSharedMemory::size () const

Returns the size of the attached shared memory segment. If no shared memory segment is attached, 0 is returned.

See also create() and attach().

bool QSharedMemory::unlock ()

Releases the lock on the shared memory segment and returns true, if the lock is currently held by this process. If the segment is not locked, or if the lock is held by another process, nothing happens and false is returned.

See also lock().

Last modified: 2014-03-13

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