How shared objects are used
To understand how a program makes use of shared objects, let's first see the format of an executable and then examine the steps that occur when the program starts.
- ELF format
- The BlackBerry 10 OS uses the ELF (Executable and Linking Format) binary format, which
is currently used in SVR4 Unix systems. ELF not only simplifies the task of making
shared libraries, but also enhances dynamic loading of modules at runtime.
In the following diagram, we show two views of an ELF file: the linking view and the execution view. The linking view, which is used when the program or library is linked, deals with sections within an object file. Sections contain the bulk of the object file information: data, instructions, relocation information, symbols, debugging information, and so on. The execution view, which is used when the program runs, deals with segments.
At linktime, the program or library is built by merging together sections with similar attributes into segments. Typically, all the executable and read-only data sections are combined into a single text segment, while the data and BSS s are combined into the data segment. These segments are called load segments, because they need to be loaded in memory at process creation. Other sections such as symbol information and debugging sections are merged into other, nonload segments.
- ELF without COFF
- Most implementations of ELF loaders are derived from COFF (Common
Object File Format) loaders; they use the linking view of the ELF objects at load
time. This is inefficient because the program loader must load the executable using
sections. A typical program could contain a large number of sections, each of which
would have to be located in the program and loaded into memory separately.
BlackBerry 10 OS, however, doesn't rely at all on the COFF technique of loading sections. When developing our ELF implementation, we worked directly from the ELF spec and kept efficiency paramount. The ELF loader uses the execution view of the program. By using the execution view, the task of the loader is greatly simplified: all it has to do is copy to memory the load segments (usually two) of the program or library. As a result, process creation and library loading operations are much faster.
Memory layout for a typical process
The diagram below shows the memory layout of a typical process. The process load segments (corresponding to text and data in the diagram) are loaded at the process's base address. The main stack is located just below and grows downwards. Any additional threads that are created have their own stacks, located below the main stack. Each of the stacks is separated by a guard page to detect stack overflows. The heap is located above the process and grows upwards.
In the middle of the process's address space, a large region is reserved for shared objects. Shared libraries are located at the top of the address space and grow downwards.
When a new process is created, the process manager first maps the two segments from the executable into memory. It then decodes the program's ELF header. If the program header indicates that the executable was linked against a shared library, the process manager extracts the name of the dynamic interpreter from the program header. The dynamic interpreter points to a shared library that contains the runtime linker code. The process manager loads this shared library in memory and then passes control to the runtime linker code in this library.
The runtime linker is invoked when a program that was linked against a shared object is started or when a program requests that a shared object be dynamically loaded. The runtime linker is contained within the C runtime library. The runtime linker performs several tasks when loading a shared library (.so file):
- If the requested shared library isn't already loaded in memory,
the runtime linker loads it:
- If the shared library name is fully qualified (that is, begins with a slash), it's loaded directly from the specified location. If it can't be found there, no further searches are performed.
- If it's not a fully qualified pathname, the runtime
linker searches for it as follows:
- If the executable's dynamic section contains a DT_RPATH tag, then the path specified by DT_RPATH is searched.
- If the shared library isn't found, the runtime linker searches for it in the directories specified by LD_LIBRARY_PATH only if the program isn't marked as setuid.
- If the shared library still isn't found, then the runtime linker searches for the default library search path as specified by the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable to procnto (that is, the CS_LIBPATH configuration string). If none has been specified, then the default library path is set to the image file system's path.
- When the requested shared library is found, it's loaded into memory. For ELF shared libraries, this is a very efficient operation: the runtime linker simply needs to use the mmap() call twice to map the two load segments into memory.
- The shared library is then added to the internal list of all libraries that the process has loaded. The runtime linker maintains this list.
- The runtime linker then decodes the dynamic section of the shared object.
This dynamic section provides information to the linker about other libraries that this library was linked against. It also gives information about the relocations that need to be applied and the external symbols that need to be resolved. The runtime linker first loads any other required shared libraries (which may themselves reference other shared libraries). It then processes the relocations for each library. Some of these relocations are local to the library, while others require the runtime linker to resolve a global symbol. In the latter case, the runtime linker searches through the list of libraries for this symbol. In ELF files, hash tables are used for the symbol lookup, so they're very fast. The order in which libraries are searched for symbols is very important.
When all relocations have been applied, any initialization functions that have been registered in the shared library's init section are called. This is used in some implementations of C++ to call global constructors.
Loading a shared library at runtime
A process can load a shared library at runtime by using the dlopen() call, which instructs the runtime linker to load this library. When the library is loaded, the program can call any function within that library by using the dlsym() call to determine its address.
Remember: shared libraries are available only to processes that are dynamically linked.
The program can also determine the symbol associated with a given address by using the dladdr() call. Finally, when the process no longer needs the shared library, it can call dlclose() to unload the library from memory.
Symbol name resolution
When the runtime linker loads a shared library, the symbols within that library have to be resolved. The order and the scope of the symbol resolution are important. If a shared library calls a function that happens to exist by the same name in several libraries that the program has loaded, the order in which these libraries are searched for this symbol is critical. This is why the OS defines several options that can be used when loading libraries. All the objects (executables and libraries) that have global scope are stored on an internal list (the global list). Any global-scope object, by default, makes available all of its symbols to any shared library that gets loaded. The global list initially contains the executable and any libraries that are loaded at the program's startup.
By default, when a new shared library is loaded by using the dlopen() call, symbols within that library are resolved by searching in this order through:
- The shared library.
- The list of libraries specified by the LD_PRELOAD environment variable. You can use this environment variable to add or change functionality when you run a program. For setuid or setgid ELF binaries, only libraries in the standard search directories that are also setuid is loaded.
- The global list
- Any dependent objects that the shared library references (that is, any other libraries that the shared library was linked against).
The runtime linker's scoping behavior can be changed in two ways when dlopen()'ing a shared library:
- When the program loads a new library, it may instruct the runtime linker to place the library's symbols on the global list by passing the RTLD_GLOBAL flag to the dlopen() call. This makes the library's symbols available to any libraries that are subsequently loaded.
- The list of objects that are searched when resolving the symbols within the shared library can be modified. If the RTLD_GROUP flag is passed to dlopen(), then only objects that the library directly references will be searched for symbols. If the RTLD_WORLD flag is passed, only the objects on the global list are searched.
Last modified: 2015-03-31